This is the second part of the 20 common errors in English. Any of you , who didn’t read the part 1 ( click here). So Lets’ begin.
11. Inappropriate pronoun shifts ; – the writers or students always create these confusion in their writing by shifting the third pronoun ( he, she, they, it) into second ( you, yours, your) or sometimes into first pronoun (I, we, me, us) all suddenly.
For instance;- 1. if you talk sensibly, most people should able to maintain their talk.
(correct is;) if you talk sensible, you should be able to maintain your talk.
or; – if you talk sensibly then most of the people like you should be able to maintain their talk.
or; – if they talk sensibly, then they should be able to maintain their talk.
12. Sentence Fragment;- fragments are the phrases or group of words which start with capital letter and ends with full-stop but they are not the independent clauses or a complete information. For instances; –
The time of the birthday. (correct is) = It was the time of her birthday).
I opened the door, it was raining. ( correct is ) = When i opened the door, it was raining outside.
I saw you, you stood on the window. ( correct is) = I saw you when you were standing on the window. or, When I saw you , you were standing on the window.
13. Wrong Tense or Wrong Form; – This is a very common mistake to count down when you do not use a proper verb to identify its exact period (past, future or present tense). For example;
I go to the stadium and played football. ( correct is ) = I went to the stadium and played football.
John and Anna is going for diving. ( correct is) = John and Anna are going for diving.
Everyone is went to School. ( correct is) = Everyone is gone to School or Everyone went to School.
14. Subject–verb agreement ;– It means both subject and verb have to be either singular or plural, in an agreement, in the sentence. For that don’t forget the verb rules, For instances; –
I go to play cricket on the stadium. ( plural)
He goes to play cricket on the stadium. (singular)
My dad or mom is coming to meet me. ( singular)
My dad and mom are coming to meet me. ( plural)
15. Lack of comma in a series;– There are two ways to use comma in series. One is in Oxford Dictionary style and other is in Howard Dictionary style. lets see by examples;
Howard’s style; – I have bought dresses, shoes, jeans, tops, and hats.
Oxford’s style; – I have bought dresses, shoes, jeans, tops and hats.
Apparently, these both styles are right. you can use comma in series in both way.
16. Pronoun agreement ;- it’s a basic grammar rule. Which means a singular pronoun only replace to singular noun and plural pronoun should replace to plural pronoun, with no confusion. Examples are;-
He is driving his car. ( singular noun and pronoun)
David and Ross are driving their car. ( plural noun and pronoun).
17. Unnecessary comma with Restricted elements;– A restricted elements are the important information in the sentences so the comma is not necessary to put in these sentences. I have already explained about comma requirement in restricted and non-restricted elements in ” 20 common errors (part 1)” . Examples are;
The fastest way to reach office is only by metro.
I like the way they give their speeches.
She studied Spanish for 2 years in Spain.
18. Run-on or fused sentence ;- it means when writer composes two main sentences without any punctuation, such as;
I was reading the book names “Twilight”. (Correct is) = I was reading the book, its name “Twilight”.
My bus took off when I almost reached its door. (correct is) = My Bus took off, when I almost reached its door.
19. Dangling or misplaced modifier ; – when the modifier word is used inappropriately in the sentence, then it called misplaced modifier. for example;
I liked the dress blue. ( correct is) = I liked the blue dress.
Peter found the gold’s watch. ( correct is) = Peter found the gold watch.
Where as; Dangling modifier words or phrases that not exactly modifying the sentence properly, infect leaving it incomplete. For example;
Looking toward the moon, when i saw a shooting star. ( looking toward the moon is not specified, it’s dangling sentence) (Correct is) = I was looking towards the moon, when I saw a shooting star.
20. Its / It’s confusion; – A common confusion which everyone can get puzzle with understanding their differences. Lets understand them in a simple way;
‘Its’ is a possessive apostrophe such as;-
The cat is eating its food.
This cycle is known for its famous features.
Whereas, ‘It’s’ is used as an abbreviation of it is, lets see;
Sweden is astonishingly a very beautiful country. Providentially, I got the chance to do my ‘Master in Business Administration’ in Sweden in 2018. Throughout my study, I had an inexplicable experience, apart from immaculate environment and undamaged roads, its beautiful greenery maintenance, and life-style are mind blowing. Sweden sets an example for every country of ‘how to restore the plants and live with them’. Sweden’s greenery surroundings magnify everyone. Everything was there so vivid. accept the weather, in winter it is hydrous, extremely cold and everywhere you only see ‘snow’ for 5-6 months, oh my God!.
But it doesn’t mean that everything is so persuasive in Sweden. Here are the 5 main facts which you should consider, if you planning to study in Sweden.
Universities:- Sweden’s 13 Universities have taken their places in ARWU World Ranking . In which;
Kerolinska Institution #rank 38.
Uppsala University #rank 62.
Stockhom and Lund universities on #rank 78 and 101
And other Universities you can find on the given link above. I lived in Upssala city and the University of Uppsala is very huge, you can only speculate. Search their sites on google for more information about; its faculties, scholarships and admission deadlines.
A piece of good advice, don’t underestimate, Sweden’s study system in their Universities. The lectures are very strict and tough. You have to do many assignments, presentations as an individual and in the group and many exams to be passed. These are mandatory and try to avoid plagiarism, as you can be blacklisted).
Expenses:– Sweden is a very expensive country. It undertakes 32% of taxes, which means living costs, food costs, and even travel costs are very high. The living expenditures are more expensive than German and Paris. The students’ apartments cost 4200 SEK to 3200 SEK per month, it could be more in the upcoming years. But you can try for sharing an apartment if it’s authorized. The food expenses are also very high. Sometimes even the regular bread becomes difficult to buy but you have to adjust to that. Same with travelling cost, but gladly, you will get some tricks to skip that trouble from old international students.
Medical cost;– The medical treatment is not all free in Sweden. Now there are a few things you need to understand. Sweden provides an exceptional ID ( Swedish: personnummer), but you are only eligible to apply if you have more than 1 year of study visa or any other resident permit. This ID works as your real and only ID in Sweden. Even if you only have a one-year visa, you can still apply for a Coordination number (temporary personnummer) that will make you eligible, to open the bank account and get a part-time job. But if you need medical treatment without the Personal number ID than the medical charges would be extremely high. To escape that make sure you have the insurance, then you can directly contact your University and ask for the assistants. It will still cost but very less compared to the Hospit
Language barrier and jobs:- Surprisingly, in Sweden everybody speaks in English very well. You certainly not going to have any problem with that. But on the opposite, when you look for jobs, it seems like everyone wants only a Swedish linguist. Fortunately, cities like Uppsala, you can find many nations, “A nation is a restaurant plus bar plus club and plus occasional events booking the hall for some category people”, These Nations invite all international students for work. They may pay less but you get free food and can support your expenses. Nations in Uppsala city, where i used to work; V dala nation, Upland nation, and Norrlands nation. You can contact these nations on their facebook page. Documents you need to apply job is; your personal number, visa and bank details.
Don’t forget the ‘Tax consumption’, as Sweden is very severe for that. There is no tax deduction up to 19000 SEK per year but if you earn more than you have to pay the tax.
Visa or Resident permit procedure:- Theembassy rules are very simple in Sweden unless you make them complicated by yourself. These are;
If you’ve successfully completed your study, got good grades. You can apply for 6 months further stay in Sweden to find the job appropriate to your skills and study. You can go to Sweden Embassy. Within six months, if you could find the job than you can get work permit visa.
But some students, what they do, complete only half-semester and try to gain 30 credits so that the half-semester time they can use to search for a job. But Sweden’s embassy is very strict, they skeptical on the excuses you give on “why you took the gap of half-semester”? And they can reject your extension request.
I hope these information will make you life less difficult in Sweden . It’s always better to have explore about the country, where you are planning to study or visit.
You are most welcome to ask any question.
If you liked my work than please do not forget to like, subscribe and share this page. It will be really appreciated.
Becoming eloquent in English is ravishing. But our poor ‘grammar’ can thwart us far away from this dream. The same ‘grammar’ which we never warily scrutinize in our school time except for the basic tense terms (past, present, and future) and the ‘comma’ that only used when you notice a ‘pause’ in the sentence, what a myth!.
These 20 common errors, you can effortlessly find in any undergraduates, postgraduates, teachers or writers’ assignments. According to the UK Recruitment and Employment Commission, ‘graduates are twice more likely to make mistakes than the less educated people’ in their resume ( Tony young. 2008). But the presence of these common errors in writing can not only disparaged the value of your work but also make your writing erratic and skeptical.
So I have written as many examples as possible to briefly explicate you every error. which hopefully an ample help to retrieve the grammar.
1. No comma in introductory element:- these elements come at the beginning of the sentence that could be a dependent clause, adverb, phrase or individual words and we segregate them from independent clause with the help of a comma (Tory Young .2008). For instance;- a dependent clause and independent clause, an adverb and independent clause, or individual word and independent clause (Khan Academy).
When you come in, please take off your shoes. ( a dependent clause, independent clause ).
Before you leave, will you clean your room?.
Apparently, I had to cancel my tour. (adverb and independent clause)
Because of you, I got to travel to Spain. ( a dependent and independent clause)
On the other hand someone was brutally killed. ( guess where should be comma?)
where as; 1. Please take off your shoes when you come in. ( no comma, because they are independent clauses).
2. Will you clean your room before you leave? ( independent clauses).
(Remember the comma(s) required when introductory elements placed before the independent clause in the composed sentence)
2. Vague Pronoun References:– As we all know, the pronouns are what stands for the noun in the sentences, such as; she, he, his, her, they, their, we, our, this, that, it. But when they are vague or uncleared in the clause, then the overall sentence becomes very confusing for the readers to understand.
A writer named ‘Joseph Conrad’. He wrote the letter to his partner, ‘Ford Madox Ford’, that his recent upcoming theories would be influential’. But whose’ theory is he talking about, his( Joseph Conrad) or his (Ford Madox Ford)?. This can drift the reader in a small confusion and maybe deliberate them questioning on writer’s writing skills. (Tory Young. 2008).
The mother and her daughter knew she is in trouble? “Who is in trouble”?. The mother or the daughter. (The mother and her daughter both knew that they are in trouble).
I love trying new Chinese dishes but they never tell the recipe. (“can you replace ‘they’ with better option”?)
3. Missing comma with non-restricted elements;- The non-restricted elements are the extra information given in the sentence to enhance its value or to modify it. It could be omitted as its presence or absence will not reflect the meaning of the sentence. Mostly the two comma(s), dashes or blankets can be used to distinguish them (Tory Young. 2008). Firstly, we need to clarify with where and where not to use comma(s) in non-restricted and restricted elements.
Jane, who loves to read, found the library. (non-restricted word comma(s) are important here)
➥ Jane found the library. ( restricted words with no comma(s)
2. The girl with red hair, standing alone walked to me and talked(Incorrect). The girl, with red hair, standing alone, walked to me and talked.(correct)
➥ The girl talked to me (main clause)
( the verb here is ‘talked’ so mentioning other stuff can be ignored and if you still want to mention them then comma(s) are essential to make the segregation).
Shakespeare, who was the greatest play-writer, born in 1954. ( now, the main information is ➥’Shakespeare born in 1954′ the rest ‘who was the greatest writer’ only modifying the clause.
Two students, who were found guilty of bullying, failed the course. (comma(s) is unnecessary here). ➥ Two students who were found guilty of bullying failed the course. (the information given here is restricted).
So if the restricted elements (important information) marked with comma(s) can sign it as its additional information rather then its essential information.
3. The women in black dress reading the book among others talked to me. (“can you guess, where the comma(s) is missing”?).
4. Missing comma(s) in compound sentences;- the conjunction of two or more independent clauses in one sentence is called a compound sentence. The comma(s) plays very essential part in their conjunction. But they are the very tricky one to understand, especially with comma(s) and no-comma(s)’ confusion.
I washed my hair, and then I took the bath. (these are two independent clauses and if you noticed, the pronoun has mentioned twice so to segregate them. so, we bound to put a comma after the first clause and before the conjunction). Katie Harrier Swift. 20 15.
I washed my hair and then took the bath. (one independent clause and subordinate, so no comma(s) required here).
I jumped on the bed, and then my sister jumped on the floor.
It rained last night, and we had to stay inside. ( conjunction, it could be; and, but, or) .
I wanted to watch a movie but my friend did not want. (where will comma stick ?)
5. Wrong Word; – For many of us, English is not our native language so sometimes in the use of more vocabulary impulsiveness, we end up intruding an irrelevant word in the sentences and the meaning emerged as absurdly and bemused the reader.
So before thinking of putting any word in the sentence from the dictionary, first verify it thoroughly and then use it when you have ample confident.
6. Wrong or missing inflected verb endings; – these mistakes can not be expected from the under-graduates. But dialects of English, phonological or grammatical differences can easily confuse many speakers and writers to understand this concept very well. For instant;
➧ I think this painting is more prettier. ( incorrect)
I think this painting is pretty or prettier than others. (correct
➧ He runs quick. (incorrect)
He runs quickly. ( correct)
➧ He is high potential. ( ‘what’s the mistake’?)
7. Wrong or missing preposition; – this a very common mistake found in both native and overseas students’ assignments. The writers always ignore their importance because they are minor to notice . But to be prudent, these small prepositions’ mistakes make the huge impact on our readers.
The prepositions are; to, at, on , by, in, for, of, like, with, since, though, with , towards and etc. ( White Smoke, Just write/ website). examples;
I was on the stadium. (wrong) I was at the stadium. ( at used for locations)
She was born in New Zork. ( in used for uncertain time or location).
He published his book ……. 2005. (guess!)
8. Comma splice; – This mistake occurs when two different independent clauses, which do not make any sense together, were composed with a comma (,) instead of full-stop (.) or other conjunctions.
Shakespeare’s novels written on romance were exceptional, ‘Romeo and Juliet’ was his best work. ( now it’s important to understand whether the clause is independent or subordinated.
Shakespeare’s novels written on romance were exceptional. ‘Romeo and Juliet’ was his best work. Or, Shakespeare’s novels written on romance were exceptional and ‘Romeo and Juliet’ was his best work. Or, Shakespeare’s novels written on romance were exceptional but ‘Romeo and Juliet’ was his best work.
Yesterday I did shopping, today I stayed at home. ( can you correct it?)
9. Possessive apostrophe; – there is nothing could more aggravate to readers than finding faults of possessive apostrophe. They are very easy to memorize, so expectations from writers to be expertise in them is natural. The apostrophe has three usages; contraction, plurals and possessive.
According to The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th edition. The possessive apostrophe has many forms; singular, plurals, individual and punctuation.
My girl’s doll.
Cisco systems’ CEO.
The teachers’ book.
The universities’ expansions.
The house on the left is Rita’s, and the house on the right is Angela’s.
France’s and Italy’s governments are very strict.
Jesus’ discipline. ( ‘wrong’ or ‘right’?)
10. Tense shift;- it defined shifting the tense into past, present, and future. Some writers change their tense from past to present and then in future to vivid their writing. But you should only do this tense shifting if this will not change the real information of the sentences.
I learned her name, by the way −̶ Little told me, once he’d interviewed the neighbors. It is Sue. Very disappointing. (A.J. Finn. The Woman in the Window. 2018).
“Please forgive me,” he said formally. “I can control myself. You caught me off guard. But I’m on my best behavior now.” ( Stephenie Meyer. Twilight. 2005).
( the transformation from past to present and vice-versa can easily be misunderstood but these writers’ work are the good examples to understand).
The article was already long enough so I divided this into two parts ( part 1 and part 2). The ‘part 2’ will soon be published on my blog, so keep tracking for new updates.
Hope, you liked my work and if you really did, that’s great! −̶ ‘thanks a lot!. if you also want me to write on ‘use of punctuation’ and ‘comma(s)’ confusions’ then press like and subscribe’s button as there are many fun topics waiting to illuminate.
An advance thanks and great regards to you beautiful person, who is currently reading this).
References; because this is how you credits and appreciate others for their contribution in your work.